Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified specific gene loci which are involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes. These specific genes play a role in insulin secretion, insulin resistance, beta cell count, obesity related diabetes. Genotyping can help to prevent and select treatment strategies by identifying specific diabetes risk factors at the genetic level.
Multiple genetic variants are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM. Few of them include TCF7L2, PPARG, KCNJ11, WFS1, SLC30A8, JAZF1, and HNF1B genes. Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disorder, and its pathogenesis involves a complex interplay between genetic, clinical phenotype and environmental factors. So, although pharmacogenetic information is an important tool in clinical decision making, other factors such as patient phenotype (eg: sex, age, bod mass index), metabolic factors etc also contribute a lot to the drug response. Thus, personalizing medicine for a patient with type 2DM needs to take all these factors into consideration.